JISC NFF Archives Sub-Committee
Survey of conservation expenditure
by Willpower Information

Part 2 of 3 : Results


4. Results

4.1 Response rates

The overall response rates achieved are shown in Table 1. As noted in above, the questionnaire was not sent out at a good time of year. In addition, several respondents commented on the number of questionnaires that they were being asked to complete, including others from JISC, and that the work involved was a significant burden; this affected their ability to deal with them promptly and fully.

Table 1: Response rates to questionnaire
  Number of substantive responses Number of nil responses Total number of responses Potential number of responses Percentage response rate
London 31 16 47 57 82%
North West England 5 3 8 16 50%
Scotland 15 5 20 21 95%
Total 51 24 75 94 80%

Nil returns were recorded when institutions responded but did not provide any figures about conservation expenditure. In most cases this was because they had no special collections within the scope of the survey, though in a few cases there were small inactive collections on which no work had been done. Some of these institutions made verbal comments, which have been taken into account in the analysis of the sections to which they relate.

Many people had difficulty in supplying the details asked for, especially for the year 1991/92. Some were able to obtain total figures from accounts departments and elsewhere, but few were able to provide any breakdown of the type of work done and the numbers of items processed.

4.2 Total expenditure on conservation and sources of funds

4.2.1 All institutions

The overall figures for expenditure on conservation were as follows:

Table 2: Total expenditure on conservation (all institutions)
All institutions Academic year 1991/92 Academic year 1996/97
Cost of work done by institutional staff Cost of work done by outside contractors Cost of work done by institutional staff Cost of work done by outside contractors
Capital 1,500 9,300 6,946 4,685,247
Non-capital 177,514 42,651 485,371 280,640
Sub-totals 179,014 51,951 492,317 4,965,887
Total of in-house and outside work 231,965 5,461,004

The sources of the funds shown in Table 2 were:

Table 3: Sources of total funds used for conservation (all institutions)
All institutions Academic year 1991/92 Academic year 1996/97
Allocated at departmental level from archival/library budget, i.e. funds transferable within archival/library headings 140,399 215,602
Earmarked for conservation at a level higher than archive/library administrators, e.g. at school, faculty or institutional level 23,302 1,531,117
Special allocation from Non-Formula Funding for Specialised Research Collections in the Humanities [Not applicable] 798,548
Special allocation from other public funding body 5,000 2,905,000
Other sources of funds 63,264 10,737
Totals 231,965 5,461,004

The following tables show expenditure and sources of funds for the three separate survey groups

4.2.2 London

Table 4: Total expenditure on conservation (London)
London Academic year 1991/92 Academic year 1996/97
Cost of work done by institutional staff Cost of work done by outside contractors Cost of work done by institutional staff Cost of work done by outside contractors
Capital 0 9,300 700 385,247
Non-capital 35,728 41,051 124,185 181,831
Sub-totals 35,728 50,351 124,885 567,078
Total of in-house and outside work 86,079 691,963

Table 5: Sources of total funds used for conservation (London)
London Academic year 1991/92 Academic year 1996/97
Allocated at departmental level from archival/library budget, i.e. funds transferable within archival/library headings 55,513 101,425
Earmarked for conservation at a level higher than archive/library administrators, e.g. at school, faculty or institutional level 5,302 204,965
Special allocation from Non-Formula Funding for Specialised Research Collections in the Humanities [Not applicable] 379,010
Special allocation from other public funding body 2,000 0
Other sources of funds 23,264 6,563
Totals 86,079 691,963

4.2.3 North West England

Table 6: Total expenditure on conservation (North West England)
North-West England Academic year 1991/92 Academic year 1996/97
Cost of work done by institutional staff Cost of work done by outside contractors Cost of work done by institutional staff Cost of work done by outside contractors
Capital 0 0 0 3,100,000
Non-capital 86,404 200 118,556 9,988
Sub-totals 86,404 200 118,556 3,109,988
Total of in-house and outside work 86,604 3,228,544

Table 7: Sources of total funds used for conservation (North West England)
North-West England Academic year 1991/92 Academic year 1996/97
Allocated at departmental level from archival/library budget, i.e. funds transferable within archival/library headings 51,604 60,282
Earmarked for conservation at a level higher than archive/library administrators, e.g. at school, faculty or institutional level 0 700,000
Special allocation from Non-Formula Funding for Specialised Research Collections in the Humanities [Not applicable] 168,262
Special allocation from other public funding body 0 2,300,000
Other sources of funds 35,000 0
Totals 86,604 3,228,544

4.2.4 Scotland

Table 8: Total expenditure on conservation (Scotland)
Scotland Academic year 1991/92 Academic year 1996/97
Cost of work done by institutional staff Cost of work done by outside contractors Cost of work done by institutional staff Cost of work done by outside contractors
Capital 1,500 0 6,246 1,200,000
Non-capital 55,382 1,400 242,630 88,821
Sub-totals 56,882 1,400 248,876 1,288,821
Total of in-house and outside work 59,282 1,540,497

Table 9: Sources of total funds used for conservation (Scotland)
Scotland Academic year 1991/92 Academic year 1996/97
Allocated at departmental level from archival/library budget, i.e. funds transferable within archival/library headings 33,282 53,895
Earmarked for conservation at a level higher than archive/library administrators, e.g. at school, faculty or institutional level 18,000 626,152
Special allocation from Non-Formula Funding for Specialised Research Collections in the Humanities [Not applicable] 168,262
Special allocation from other public funding body 3,000 251,276
Other sources of funds 5,000 4,174
Totals 59,282 1,540,497

4.3 Distribution of capital expenditure: number of projects by size

Capital expenditure recorded for 1991/92 is negligible, as is capital work done by institutional staff in 1996/97. Capital work done by external contractors in 1996/97 is accounted for by seven projects, broken down as follows:

Table 10: Amount spent on capital work by external contractors in 1996/97
(Figures show numbers of
institutions in each category)
0 10k - 50k 100k - 500k 1M - 5M
London 43 3 1 0
North West England 6 0 1 1
Scotland 19 0 0 1
Total 68 3 2 2

The sources of funds for these capital projects are shown in Table 11:

Table 11: Sources of total funds used for capital projects (all institutions)
All institutions Academic year 1996/97
Allocated at departmental level from archival/library budget, i.e. funds transferable within archival/library headings 0
Earmarked for conservation at a level higher than archive/library administrators, e.g. at school, faculty or institutional level 1,491,000
Special allocation from Non-Formula Funding for Specialised Research Collections in the Humanities 294,247
Special allocation from SHEFCE 600,000
Special allocation from Heritage Lottery Fund 2,300,000
Other sources of funds 0
Totals 4,685,247

Pie chart

Figure 1: Sources of total funds used for capital projects (all institutions)

If the funds allocated for these capital projects are deducted from the overall totals, the sources of funds available for non-capital work are shown in Table 12:

Table 12: Sources of total funds used for non-capital conservation work (all institutions)
All institutions Academic year 1996/97
Allocated at departmental level from archival/library budget, i.e. funds transferable within archival/library headings 215,602
Earmarked for conservation at a level higher than archive/library administrators, e.g. at school, faculty or institutional level 40,117
Special allocation from Non-Formula Funding for Specialised Research Collections in the Humanities 504,301
Special allocation from other public funding body 5,000
Other sources of funds 10,737
Totals 775,757

Pie chart

Figure 2: Sources of total funds used for non-capital conservation work (all institutions)

4.4 Distribution of non-capital expenditure: numbers of institutions by amount spent for internal and external work

Table 13: Amount spent on non-capital work done by institutional staff in 1991/92
(Figures show numbers of
institutions in each category)
Nil More than 0 up to 1k More than 1k up to 5k More than 5k up to 10k More than 10k up to 20k More than 20k up to 30k More than 30k up to 40k More than 40k
London 35 8 2 1 0 1 0 0
North West England 5 0 2 0 0 0 0 1
Scotland 14 1 3 0 1 0 1 0
Total 54 9 7 1 1 1 1 1

Table 14: Amount spent on non-capital work done by external contractors in 1991/92
(Figures show numbers of
institutions in each category)
Nil More than 0 up to 1k More than 1k up to 5k More than 5k up to 10k More than 10k up to 20k More than 20k up to 30k More than 30k up to 40k More than 40k
London 34 3 6 4 0 0 0 0
North West England 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Scotland 19 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Total 60 4 7 4 0 0 0 0
Table 15: Amount spent on non-capital work done by institutional staff in 1996/97
(Figures show numbers of
institutions in each category)
Nil More than 0 up to 1k More than 1k up to 5k More than 5k up to 10k More than 10k up to 20k More than 20k up to 30k More than 30k up to 40k More than 40k
London 28 8 6 0 3 1 0 1
North West England 3 1 0 2 1 0 0 1
Scotland 8 3 3 2 0 1 0 3
Total 39 12 9 4 4 2 0 5

Table 16: Amount spent on non-capital work done by external contractors in 1996/97
(Figures show numbers of
institutions in each category)
Nil More than 0 up to 1k More than 1k up to 5k More than 5k up to 10k More than 10k up to 20k More than 20k up to 30k More than 30k up to 40k More than 40k
London 27 6 3 4 3 3 1 0
North West England 6 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
Scotland 10 1 2 3 3 1 0 0
Total 43 7 7 7 6 4 1 0

4.5 Special factors in the past and in the future

Institutions were asked to state whether any special factors had affected their expenditure on conservation in the period 1991 to 1997, and whether they foresaw any special factors likely to affect expenditure from 1997/98 onwards. These questions were not pre-coded, as we did not have sufficient prior knowledge of the factors that institutions would consider important. Some points recurred frequently in responses, but it is not possible to draw any quantitative conclusions from these.

The factors affecting both past and future expenditure that far outweighed all others were:

Scottish institutions indicated that some work had been done only because of the availability of the subsidised service from the Dundee conservation centre.

Availability of professional staff is an important factor - apart from the stimulus to development work and fundraising mentioned above, they are often the only source of expertise for condition surveys and identification of priorities, as well as doing actual conservation work. If these staff are lost due to the ending of special funding such as NFF, much conservation work will stop. Many staff have been appointed on limited-term contracts because of "project" funding, and this means that figures for the years surveyed cannot be taken as typical or a valid indicator for the future.

Some relationships were noted between conservation and cataloguing work:

Most institutions are aware of conservation needs and would welcome funds to make it possible, but a small minority identify themselves as serving students' or users' need for current material, and even if they hold some archives they place very low importance on them.

Many institutions see future conservation work entirely dependent on the availability of new grants or funds, whether public or private. However, the curatorial time and effort devoted to seeking special funds, and then administering them and providing feedback to funders, has a negative effect on actual conservation work.

4.6 Forward budgets

Institutions were asked to specify their forward budgets for the academic years 1997/98 to 2001/02, indicating whether they were private plans, applied for, approved subject to funds being available, or firmly allocated. As the year 1997/98 was almost ended, most of the budgets for this year fell in the "firmly allocated" category, though a surprising number of institutions gave no budgets. If money for this year had already been spent, it might not have been thought of as being in the category of "forward budgets". In cases where no budget figures are given for any year, it is possible that the institution's budget breakdown does not allocate a specific amount for conservation, expenditure coming from a general archive or library budget, as needed.

Only one large capital project had been budgeted for, with an application made for 6-7M over three years starting in 1997/98, of which 1M had already been firmly allocated. We recorded this as 2.23M per year for three years. If this is excluded, the total amounts budgeted for each academic year are as shown in Table 17. Long-term budgets are generally very speculative, and most institutions chose not to provide them.

Table 17: Budgets for academic years 1997/98 to 2001/02
(Figures show numbers of institutions having forward budgets and the total amounts of these budgets) 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000 2000/2001 2001/2002
No. k No. k No. k No. k No. k
London 17 257 19 407 6 83 4 29 3 32
North West England 2 3 2 124 2 52 1 1 1 1
Scotland 11 206 11 183 4 50 3 14 3 14
Total 30 466 32 714 12 185 8 44 7 47

Table 18: Budgets for academic year 1997/98
(Figures show numbers of
institutions in each category)
Nil More than 0 up to 1k More than 1k up to 5k More than 5k up to 10k More than 10k up to 20k More than 20k up to 30k More than 30k up to 40k More than 40k
London 30 1 6 2 2 1 2 3
North West England 6 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Scotland 9 0 4 1 3 0 1 2
Total 45 2 11 3 5 1 3 5

Table 19: Budgets for academic year 1998/99
(Figures show numbers of
institutions in each category)
Nil More than 0 up to 1k More than 1k up to 5k More than 5k up to 10k More than 10k up to 20k More than 20k up to 30k More than 30k up to 40k More than 40k
London 28 2 4 1 6 1 1 4
North West England 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Scotland 9 0 4 4 3 0 0 2
Total 43 3 8 5 6 2 1 7

4.7 Future priorities

Institutions were asked "If more money were to become available to your institution for conservation, to what types of work and material would you give priority?" Again, as this question was not pre-coded, some respondents listed items in detail while others made more general comments, so quantitative conclusions cannot be drawn.

4.7.1 Types of material

The most frequently mentioned type of material was named collections. Several respondents mentioned photographs, print and drawings, maps, posters, early or rare books, manuscripts and institutional records. Items mentioned a few times included music, pamphlets, press cuttings, newspapers, sound recordings and paintings.

4.7.2 Types of work

Responses covered a wide range of typical work, with no specific process preponderating. Those mentioned included cleaning, deacidification, storing in acid free boxes and folders, binding, basic repairs and preservation microfilming. The need to improve environmental conditions was noted several times, and several respondents would like to start a digitisation programme.

4.8 Analysis of non-capital expenditure

The Sub-Committee wished institutions to analyse their expenditure to show how much was spent on each type of material and on each type of work, and to do this for the academic years 1991/92 and 1996/97, providing separate analyses for work done by external contractors and by their own staff.

Unfortunately this amount of detail was more than many respondents were able to provide, despite the considerable efforts some of them made to collect the required information. Many institutions did not keep detailed records in this form, and in some cases records for 1991/92 were no longer available. For some the only records were of the amount spent, and for others only the number of items processed. When material was conserved several processes might be applied to the same items, and no breakdown of the costs attributable to the individual processes was recorded, whether or not it was shown on conservators' invoices.

Digitisation projects reported contain large elements of investigation and consultancy in determining the procedures to be used. These initial costs were incurred before any material was actually digitised, so they are not proportional to the number of items dealt with.

In filling in the analysis sheets, therefore, some people gave a full breakdown while others gave only totals or subtotals. Some interpretation of the returns has therefore been necessary in drawing up the consolidated sheets, shown as Table 20 to Table 35, and these are not internally consistent: the row and column totals may contain components that are not present in the analysis columns. The analysis tables may nevertheless be useful as showing a minimum value for each figure, in the knowledge that the actual amount of material processed and expenditure will be greater than this. The totals of the analysis tables are all less than the corresponding total expenditure figures given in Table 2.

When a number of items dealt with is shown adjacent to a cost, it is not valid to divide one by the other to obtain a unit cost, because the number of items may contain some for which no cost was given, and vice versa. Some unit costs could have been calculated from individual returns, but we have decided not to do this because such figures could be seriously misleading, especially if used for comparisons between institutions. The way in which staff costs have been treated, in particular, is very uncertain. There is so much variation in the work from one job to another that for unit costs to be useful they would have to be based on a full assessment of the work being done and the cost elements to be included. The HEFCE paper referred to in section 3.3 could be used for guidance in doing this.

Table 20: Academic year 1991/92 : Cost of work done by internal staff of HEIs : All institutions
Warning: numbers and costs are not directly comparable, and totals include items for which no breakdown was provided - see section 4.8
  Archives and manuscripts Rare books and books in special collections Maps, prints and drawings Photographs Total
No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost ()
Binding and storage Boxing (boxes) 1510 7157 55 100         1565 7257
Phase boxing (boxes) 199 3520 25 120         224 3640
Foldering (folders) 11284 3505         92 272 11376 3777
Fasciculing (fascicules)         62 6000     52 6000
Binding on guards (volumes)                    
Other binding (volumes)   3500 267 1438         267 4938
Subtotal for binding and storage 12993 17682 347 1658 62 6000 92 272 13484 25612
Conservation Encapsulating (sheets)     2150 14     33 12 2183 26
Deacidification (items)     2513 1500 1281 9000     3794 10500
Repairing tears(items)     2392 284 81 5000     2473 5284
Cleaning (items)     456   51 500     507 500
Other conservation (items)     764 1450         764 7450
Subtotal for conservation   6000 8275 87332 1413 14500 33 12 9721 23760
Copying Photocopying (sheets) 640 128             640 128
Microfilming (images) 17500 5250 3 95         17503 5345
Photography (images) 23 281 7 94         30 375
Digitisation (images)                    
Subtotal for copying 18163 5659 10 189         18173 5848
Packing, transport, insurance, etc.       50         50  
Total 31156 29341 8632 89229 1465 20500 125 284 41378 55270

Table 21: Academic year 1991/92 Cost of work done by outside contractors : All institutions
Warning: numbers and costs are not directly comparable, and totals include items for which no breakdown was provided - see section 4.8
  Archives and manuscripts Rare books and books in special collections Maps, prints and drawings Photographs Total
No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost ()
Binding and storage Boxing (boxes)     200 1600         200 1600
Phase boxing (boxes) 750 750             750 750
Foldering (folders) 1000 750             1000 750
Fasciculing (fascicules)                    
Binding on guards (volumes)                    
Other binding (volumes)     957 13261         977 13461
Subtotal for binding and storage 1750 1500 1157 14861         2927 16561
Conservation Encapsulating (sheets)                    
Deacidification (items)     4 485         4 485
Repairing tears (items)                    
Cleaning (items)                    
Other conservation (items) 4 1250 10 7000 33 2365     47 10615
Subtotal for conservation 4 1250 14 7485 33 2365     51 11100
Copying Photocopying (sheets)                    
Microfilming (images)                    
Photography (images)                    
Digitisation (images)                    
Subtotal for copying                    
Packing, transport, insurance, etc.                    
Total 1754 2750 1171 22346 33 2365     2978 27661

Table 22: Academic year 1996/97 Cost of work done by internal staff of HEIs : All institutions
Warning: numbers and costs are not directly comparable, and totals include items for which no breakdown was provided - see section 4.8
  Archives and manuscripts Rare books and books in special collections Maps, prints and drawings Photographs Total
No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost ()
Binding and storage Boxing (boxes) 10592 32110     600 12000 15 157 11207 44267
Phase boxing (boxes) 120 750 507       50000 1000 50627 1750
Foldering (folders) 40842 21107 20 145 30 242 2992 13836 43884 35330
Fasciculing (fascicules)         30 3000     30 3000
Binding on guards (volumes)       4200           4200
Other binding (volumes)   825 846 10014         846 10839
Subtotal for binding and storage 51764 55293 1373 14359 660 15242 53007 14993 106594 99386
Conservation Encapsulating (sheets)     3376 34 468       3844 34
Deacidification (items)     22399 1300         22399 1300
Repairing tears(items) 4 1141 12097 2400 150 5000     12251 8541
Cleaning (items) 35   14016 2440 985 4000     15036 6440
Other conservation (items) 3814 24405 344 19824 310 1571 30 400 4498 46200
Subtotal for conservation 3853 25546 52232 25998 1913 10571 30 400 58328 63265
Copying Photocopying (sheets) 5130 1026         100 400 5230 1426
Microfilming (images) 120080 35600             120080 35600
Photography (images) 23 404 7 135     54 1320 84 1859
Digitisation (images)   64000         25000   25000 64000
Subtotal for copying 125233 101030 7 135     25154 1720 150394 102885
Packing, transport, insurance, etc.   413   1172       6   1591
Total 180850 182282 53612 41664 2573 25813 78191 17119 315316 360599

Table 23: Academic year 1996/97 Cost of work done by outside contractors : All institutions
Warning: numbers and costs are not directly comparable, and totals include items for which no breakdown was provided - see section 4.8
  Archives and manuscripts Rare books and books in special collections Maps, prints and drawings Photographs Total
No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost ()
Binding and storage Boxing (boxes)   3000 361 6258 200 2759   500 561 12517
Phase boxing (boxes) 805 1104 247 1665         1052 2769
Foldering (folders) 700 500 835 1002 1500 1023     3035 2525
Fasciculing (fascicules)                    
Binding on guards (volumes) 38 7034 210 21861 1 45     249 28940
Other binding (volumes) 172 2296 1721 35976     6 356 1899 38628
Subtotal for binding and storage 1715 13934 3374 66762 1701 3827 6 856 6796 85379
Conservation Encapsulating (sheets) 30 499         2 30 32 529
Deacidification (items)     211 2224 2 192     213 2416
Repairing tears(items) 9 7582 1500 3549 2 192 7 415 1518 11738
Cleaning (items) 46 4795 5201 11070 2 192 11 652 5260 16709
Other conservation (items) 21708 19311 361 48236 200 3835 27 987 22296 72369
Subtotal for conservation 21793 32187 7870 72479 206 4411 47 2084 29519 115961
Copying Photocopying (sheets)                 5000 1000
Microfilming (images) 61266 16802 37 5652         61303 22454
Photography (images)   500               500
Digitisation (images)   3000               3000
Subtotal for copying 61266 20302 37 5652         61303 25954
Packing, transport, insurance, etc.   2573   2037   250   250   5110
Total 84774 68996 12676 179430 1907 8488 53 3190 97952 254904

Table 24: Academic year 1991/92 : Cost of work done by internal staff of HEIs : London
Warning: numbers and costs are not directly comparable, and totals include items for which no breakdown was provided - see section 4.8
  Archives and manuscripts Rare books and books in special collections Maps, prints and drawings Photographs Total
No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost ()
Binding and storage Boxing (boxes) 460 3522 12 100         472 3622
Phase boxing (boxes) 20 20             20 20
Foldering (folders) 284 1323         92 272 376 1595
Fasciculing (fascicules)                    
Binding on guards (volumes)                    
Other binding (volumes)   3000 241 1438         241 4438
Subtotal for binding and storage 764 7865 253 1538     92 272 1109 9675
Conservation Encapsulating (sheets)     12 14     33 12 45 26
Deacidification (items)                    
Repairing tears(items)     24 84         24 84
Cleaning (items)                    
Other conservation (items)     100 350         100 350
Subtotal for conservation     136 448     33 12 169 460
Copying Photocopying (sheets) 640 128             640 128
Microfilming (images)                    
Photography (images) 23 281 7 94         30 375
Digitisation (images)                    
Subtotal for copying 663 409 7 94         670 503
Packing, transport, insurance, etc.       50           50
Total 1427 8274 396 2130     125 284 1948 10688

Table 25: Academic year 1991/92 : Cost of work done by outside contractors : London
Warning: numbers and costs are not directly comparable, and totals include items for which no breakdown was provided - see section 4.8
  Archives and manuscripts Rare books and books in special collections Maps, prints and drawings Photographs Total
No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost ()
Binding and storage Boxing (boxes)     200 1600         200 1600
Phase boxing (boxes) 750 750             750 750
Foldering (folders) 1000 750             1000 750
Fasciculing (fascicules)                    
Binding on guards (volumes)                    
Other binding (volumes)     957 13261         957 13261
Subtotal for binding and storage 1750 1500 1157 14861         2907 16361
Conservation Encapsulating (sheets)                    
Deacidification (items)     4 485         4 485
Repairing tears(items)                    
Cleaning (items)                    
Other conservation (items) 4 1250 10 7000 30 1865     44 10115
Subtotal for conservation 4 1250 14 7485 30 1865     48 10600
Copying Photocopying (sheets)                    
Microfilming (images)                    
Photography (images)                    
Digitisation (images)                    
Subtotal for copying                    
Packing, transport, insurance, etc.                    
Total 1754 2750 1171 22346 30 1865     2955 26961

Table 26: Academic year 1996/97 : Cost of work done by internal staff of HEIs : London
Warning: numbers and costs are not directly comparable, and totals include items for which no breakdown was provided - see section 4.8
  Archives and manuscripts Rare books and books in special collections Maps, prints and drawings Photographs Total
No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost ()
Binding and storage Boxing (boxes) 3892 13665         10 60 3902 13725
Phase boxing (boxes)             50000 1000 50000 1000
Foldering (folders) 5992 5838 20 145     92 522 6104 6505
Fasciculing (fascicules)                    
Binding on guards (volumes)                    
Other binding (volumes)   825 294 3155         294 3980
Subtotal for binding and storage 10094 20829 314 3300     50102 1582 60300 25210
Conservation Encapsulating (sheets)     36 34         36 34
Deacidification (items)                    
Repairing tears(items)     95 400         95 400
Cleaning (items) 35     140         35 140
Other conservation (items)     100 19725         100 19725
Subtotal for conservation 35   231 20299         266 20299
Copying Photocopying (sheets) 130 26         100 400 230 426
Microfilming (images) 56891 9600             56891 9600
Photography (images) 23 404 7 135     54 1320 84 1859
Digitisation (images)                    
Subtotal for copying 57044 10030 7 135     154 1720 57205 11885
Packing, transport, insurance, etc.                    
Total 67173 30859 552 23734     50256 3302 117771 57394

Table 27: Academic year 1996/97 : Cost of work done by outside contractors : London
Warning: numbers and costs are not directly comparable, and totals include items for which no breakdown was provided - see section 4.8
  Archives and manuscripts Rare books and books in special collections Maps, prints and drawings Photographs Total
No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost ()
Binding and storage Boxing (boxes)   1000 361 6258         361 7258
Phase boxing (boxes) 800 1029 247 1665         1047 2694
Foldering (folders) 700 500 835 1002         1535 1502
Fasciculing (fascicules)                    
Binding on guards (volumes)       500           500
Other binding (volumes) 166 65 1628 24782         1794 24847
Subtotal for binding and storage 1666 2594 3071 34207         4737 36801
Conservation Encapsulating (sheets)             2 30 2 30
Deacidification (items)     11 1224         11 1224
Repairing tears(items)   4935 1500 3549         1500 8484
Cleaning (items)     5001 10070         5001 10070
Other conservation (items) 21672 8781 211 37208 200   25 869 22108 46858
Subtotal for conservation 21672 13716 6723 52051 200   27 899 28822 78866
Copying Photocopying (sheets)                    
Microfilming (images) 56266 16244 37 5652         56303 21896
Photography (images)   500               500
Digitisation (images)                    
Subtotal for copying 56266 16744 37 5652         56303 22396
Packing, transport, insurance, etc.   1447   2037           3484
Total 79604 34501 9831 93947 200   27 899 90196 164047

Table 28: Academic year 1991/92 : Cost of work done by internal staff of HEIs : North West England
Warning: numbers and costs are not directly comparable, and totals include items for which no breakdown was provided - see section 4.8
  Archives and manuscripts Rare books and books in special collections Maps, prints and drawings Photographs Total
No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost ()
Binding and storage Boxing (boxes) 200 235 43           243 235
Phase boxing (boxes) 1000 650 25 120         25 120
Foldering (folders)                 1000 650
Fasciculing (fascicules)                    
Binding on guards (volumes)                    
Other binding (volumes)     26           26  
Subtotal for binding and storage 1200 885 94 120         1294 1005
Conservation Encapsulating (sheets)     2138           2138  
Deacidification (items)     2413           2413  
Repairing tears(items)     2368 200         2368 200
Cleaning (items)     456           456  
Other conservation (items)     664 1100         664 1100
Subtotal for conservation     8039 85384         8039 1300
Copying Photocopying (sheets)                    
Microfilming (images)     3 95         3 95
Photography (images)                    
Digitisation (images)                    
Subtotal for copying     3 95         3 95
Packing, transport, insurance, etc.                    
Total 1200 885 8136 85599         9336 2400

Table 29: Academic year 1991/92 Cost of work done by outside contractors : North West England
Warning: numbers and costs are not directly comparable, and totals include items for which no breakdown was provided - see section 4.8
  Archives and manuscripts Rare books and books in special collections Maps, prints and drawings Photographs Total
No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost ()
Binding and storage Boxing (boxes)                    
Phase boxing (boxes)                    
Foldering (folders)                    
Fasciculing (fascicules)                    
Binding on guards (volumes)                    
Other binding (volumes)                 20 200
Subtotal for binding and storage                 20 200
Conservation Encapsulating (sheets)                    
Deacidification (items)                    
Repairing tears(items)                    
Cleaning (items)                    
Other conservation (items)                    
Subtotal for conservation                    
Copying Photocopying (sheets)                    
Microfilming (images)                    
Photography (images)                    
Digitisation (images)                    
Subtotal for copying                    
Packing, transport, insurance, etc.                    
Total                 20 200

Table 30: Academic year 1996/97 Cost of work done by internal staff of HEIs : North West England
Warning: numbers and costs are not directly comparable, and totals include items for which no breakdown was provided - see section 4.8
  Archives and manuscripts Rare books and books in special collections Maps, prints and drawings Photographs Total
No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost ()
Binding and storage Boxing (boxes) 5000 9000             5000 9000
Phase boxing (boxes) 120 750 507           627 750
Foldering (folders) 1850 3200             1850 3200
Fasciculing (fascicules)                    
Binding on guards (volumes)                    
Other binding (volumes)     406 523         406 523
Subtotal for binding and storage 6970 12950 913 523         7883 13473
Conservation Encapsulating (sheets)     3340   468       3808  
Deacidification (items)     22392           22392  
Repairing tears(items) 4 120 11986           11990 120
Cleaning (items)     14000   468       14468  
Other conservation (items) 614 5020 244   10 71 30 400 898 5491
Subtotal for conservation 618 5140 51962   946 71 30 400 53556 5611
Copying Photocopying (sheets)                    
Microfilming (images)                    
Photography (images)                    
Digitisation (images)                    
Subtotal for copying                    
Packing, transport, insurance, etc.                    
Total 7588 18090 52875 523 946 71 30 400 61439 112556

Table 31: Academic year 1996/97 Cost of work done by outside contractors : North West England
Warning: numbers and costs are not directly comparable, and totals include items for which no breakdown was provided - see section 4.8
  Archives and manuscripts Rare books and books in special collections Maps, prints and drawings Photographs Total
No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost ()
Binding and storage Boxing (boxes)   2000       2500   500   5000
Phase boxing (boxes)                    
Foldering (folders)                    
Fasciculing (fascicules)                    
Binding on guards (volumes) 20 340 40 4604 1 45     61 4989
Other binding (volumes)                    
Subtotal for binding and storage 20 2340 40 4604 1 2545   500 61 9989
Conservation Encapsulating (sheets)                    
Deacidification (items)                    
Repairing tears(items)                    
Cleaning (items)                    
Other conservation (items)                    
Subtotal for conservation                    
Copying Photocopying (sheets)                    
Microfilming (images)                    
Photography (images)                    
Digitisation (images)                    
Subtotal for copying                    
Packing, transport, insurance, etc.                    
Total 20 2340 40 4604 1 2545   500 61 9989

Table 32: Academic year 1991/92 : Cost of work done by internal staff of HEIs : Scotland
Warning: numbers and costs are not directly comparable, and totals include items for which no breakdown was provided - see section 4.8
  Archives and manuscripts Rare books and books in special collections Maps, prints and drawings Photographs Total
No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost ()
Binding and storage Boxing (boxes) 850 3400             850 3400
Phase boxing (boxes) 179 3500             179 3500
Foldering (folders) 10000 1532             10000 1532
Fasciculing (fascicules)         52 6000     52 6000
Binding on guards (volumes)                    
Other binding (volumes)   500               500
Subtotal for binding and storage 11029 8932     52 6000     11081 14932
Conservation Encapsulating (sheets)                    
Deacidification (items)     100 1500 1281 9000     1381 10500
Repairing tears(items)         81 5000     81 5000
Cleaning (items)         51 500     51 500
Other conservation (items)   6000               6000
Subtotal for conservation   6000 100 1500 1413 14500     1513 22000
Copying Photocopying (sheets)                    
Microfilming (images) 17500 5250             17500 5250
Photography (images)                    
Digitisation (images)                    
Subtotal for copying 17500 5250             17500 5250
Packing, transport, insurance, etc.                    
Total 28529 20182 100 1500 1465 20500     30094 42182

Table 33: Academic year 1991/92 Cost of work done by outside contractors : Scotland
Warning: numbers and costs are not directly comparable, and totals include items for which no breakdown was provided - see section 4.8
  Archives and manuscripts Rare books and books in special collections Maps, prints and drawings Photographs Total
No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost ()
Binding and storage Boxing (boxes)                    
Phase boxing (boxes)                    
Foldering (folders)                    
Fasciculing (fascicules)                    
Binding on guards (volumes)                    
Other binding (volumes)                    
Subtotal for binding and storage                    
Conservation Encapsulating (sheets)                    
Deacidification (items)                    
Repairing tears(items)                    
Cleaning (items)                    
Other conservation (items)         3 500     3 500
Subtotal for conservation         3 500     3 500
Copying Photocopying (sheets)                    
Microfilming (images)                    
Photography (images)                    
Digitisation (images)                    
Subtotal for copying                    
Packing, transport, insurance, etc.                    
Total         3 500     3 500

Table 34: Academic year 1996/97 Cost of work done by internal staff of HEIs : Scotland
Warning: numbers and costs are not directly comparable, and totals include items for which no breakdown was provided - see section 4.8
  Archives and manuscripts Rare books and books in special collections Maps, prints and drawings Photographs Total
No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost ()
Binding and storage Boxing (boxes) 1700 9445     600 12000 5 97 2305 21542
Phase boxing (boxes)                    
Foldering (folders) 33000 12069     30 242 2900 13314 35930 25625
Fasciculing (fascicules)         30 3000     30 3000
Binding on guards (volumes)       4200           4200
Other binding (volumes)     146 6336         146 6336
Subtotal for binding and storage 34700 21514 146 10536 660 15242 2905 13411 38411 60703
Conservation Encapsulating (sheets)                    
Deacidification (items)     7 1300         7 1300
Repairing tears(items)   1021 16 2000 150 5000     166 8021
Cleaning (items)     16 2300 517 4000     533 6300
Other conservation (items) 3200 19385   99 300 1500     3500 20984
Subtotal for conservation 3200 20406 39 5699 967 10500     4506 37355
Copying Photocopying (sheets) 5000 1000             5000 1000
Microfilming (images) 63189 26000             63189 26000
Photography (images)                    
Digitisation (images)   64000         25000   25000 64000
Subtotal for copying 68189 91000         25000   93189 91000
Packing, transport, insurance, etc.   413   1172           1591
Total 106089 133333 185 17407 1627 25742 27905 13417 136106 190649

Table 35: Academic year 1996/97 Cost of work done by outside contractors : Scotland
Warning: numbers and costs are not directly comparable, and totals include items for which no breakdown was provided - see section 4.8
  Archives and manuscripts Rare books and books in special collections Maps, prints and drawings Photographs Total
No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost () No. Cost ()
Binding and storage Boxing (boxes)         200 259     200 259
Phase boxing (boxes) 5 75             5 75
Foldering (folders)         1500 1023     1500 1023
Fasciculing (fascicules)                    
Binding on guards (volumes) 18 6694 170 16757         188 23451
Other binding (volumes) 6 2231 93 11194     6 356 105 13781
Subtotal for binding and storage 29 9000 263 27951 1700 1282 6 356 1998 38589
Conservation Encapsulating (sheets) 30 499             30 499
Deacidification (items)     200 1000 2 192     202 1192
Repairing tears(items) 9 2647     2 192 7 415 18 3254
Cleaning (items) 46 4795 200 1000 2 192 11 652 259 6639
Other conservation (items) 36 10530 150 11028   3835 2 118 188 25511
Subtotal for conservation 121 18471 550 13028 6 4411 20 1185 697 37095
Copying Photocopying (sheets)                    
Microfilming (images) 5000 558             5000 558
Photography (images)                    
Digitisation (images)   3000               3000
Subtotal for copying 5000 3558             5000 3558
Packing, transport, insurance, etc.   1126       250   250   1626
Total 5150 32155 813 40979 1706 5943 26 1791 7695 80868

4.9 Factors influencing choice of conservation service

Forty institutions replied to this question, 24 in London, 4 in North West England, and 12 in Scotland, with the results shown in Figure 3. The labels on this diagram are abbreviated, and the questionnaire should be referred to for the full wording of each category. Some respondents said that certain factors, such as qualifications, were mandatory requirements, so that the choice between conservation services meeting these depended on other factors. A factor mentioned several times under "Other" was the recommendation of experts or other customers of the conservation service. Factors that would affect the choice between a regional and a national centre, such as transport risk, distance and accessibility, were all rated as 5% or less. Quality of work and cost are the predominant factors, with qualifications and skill being considered important because they are ways of assuring quality.

Bar graph of factors in order of increasing importance

Figure 3: Factors influencing the choice of a conservation service

4.10 Quality control of conservation work

The question "How do you monitor the quality of conservation work done by institutional staff or external contractors?" was intended to find how much use institutions made of external experts or advisers in assessing the work of conservation services. Answers were as follows (in a few cases an institution used more than one method):

Table 36: Quality control of conservation work
Inspection by qualified conservation staff of institution. 10
Inspection of all work by external experts or advisers. 0
Inspection of samples of work by external experts or advisers. 7
Contractual provision for maintenance of quality, with compensation or other remedies if work found inadequate by an independent arbitrator. 7
Other: please specify 19

The majority of institutions rely on their own inspection of the work, with a few obtaining advice from external experts or advisers based on an examination of samples. The "other" category contains mainly replies from institutions that rely on their own inspection, though their staff may not be formally qualified. Some mentioned taking external advice when choosing a conservator, and relying on the conservator's reputation and experience.


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